COVID-19 Explainer: How Are Antibodies Formed And How Long Do They Last? | Coronavirus Explainer

May 26, 2021 0 Comments



What are antibodies? How do these get formed and how long do these last?

New Delhi: Recently 62-year-old Dr KK Aggarwal, a former president of the Indian Medical Association and a prominent face of the medical fraternity in the country died after a lengthy battle with COVID.  The Padma Shri award winner had been on ventilator support at Delhi’s All India Institute Of Medical Science
(AIIMS) hospital for few days before his death. He had taken both doses of the vaccine.

Not just Dr KK Aggarwal, there are other doctors as well who succumbed to COVID-19 despite completing the vaccine course of two doses.

So, why are people dying of COVID despite both the doses of vaccine? Do the antibodies work against the variants? These and many other questions remain commonly asked in this continued fight against Covid-19. NDTV speaks with experts to understand how antibodies work and how long do they last in the body to provide protection against coronavirus.

Also Read: A Survivor’s Story: Hyderabad’s Youngest COVID Patient Defeats Coronavirus Successfully

What Are Antibodies?

There are basically two types of antibodies – one, which are the naturally produced antibodies when the body gets infected with the disease and the other way to acquire antibodies is through vaccines.

Dr PS Narang, Associate Director, Paediatric, Max Healthcare said,

Antibodies are just number, we cannot really put it as a benchmark. Even with higher antibodies one may get the infection and vice versa. So, one should not become relaxed, virus only multiples in hosts, if we decrease the number of hosts, it won’t be able to travel, and we will be able to reduce its variants as well as it won’t be able to mutate. We need to stop that chain of transmission and that really is the key.

Also Read: Expert Answers Questions On COVID-19 Vaccination And Treatment

How Are Antibodies Formed?

Talking about the first line of defence – T cells, Dr Pradeep Suri, Pathologist, Director, Dr Suri Lab said that normally when a person contracts the virus, the first natural reaction comes in the body from T cells present in the blood. He added,

These start acting on the virus the minute it enters the body. If successful, these T-cells stall the virus from further invading the body. However, if T-cells manage to block the virus at the onset then the body never end up developing any antibodies. Therefore, there have seen in the past, cases where people developed a mild infection but on testing, they showed no signs of antibodies.

How many T cells are there in one’s body depends on how young the person is. Younger a person is, the more efficiently these T-cells work and that’s why it is seen that children have strong capabilities of fighting the virus.

Explaining the tests which are available in the market to check for T cell Immunity, Dr Pradeep Suri added,

T Cell immunity has a good role to play, but unfortunately we don’t have any marker to know if in somebody these cells have made the memory to fight the infection or not. There is one way to check the T-cell immunity and that is only while you have the infection and mostly people will end up with a very mild infection, so the need for testing won’t arise as such.

Many studies have also shown that people who get T cell immunity are also less likely to get re-infected with the virus. Even with the new variants, people with T cell immunity are protected. Reason – T cells develop the memory and remember to fight out the virus like it did before.

But if T cells have not managed to fight out the virus, then the activity of B cells kick-in. Their primary job is also to fight the infection and these also end up developing a strong memory. Explaining the working of B cells, Dr PS Narang said,

Once these cells start working, the body starts producing antibodies, the first is IGM antibodies, which develop in seven days and these last up to six weeks or so. These are basically the antibodies that fight out the virus during the time of infection. The next set of antibodies are IGG, which are the antibodies that are the protective ones. These are called neutralising antibodies and are the most important of the lot. These start forming in two to three weeks time and stay within the body for six months.

Whereas, in case of vaccines, antibodies are developed through the B Cells. In these as well, the number of antibodies doesn’t really matter, what matter is the specific virus protective antibodies. For example, since Covaxin is a whole virus, it will form more antibodies and Covishield will have less antibodies as it works only on spike protein. But this doesn’t mean that either of them is less effective because the one that really matters – IGG antibodies are the same in both the vaccines.

Also Read: Explainer: All About DRDO’s New COVID Drug

What Is Quantum Of Antibodies Produced In The Body And How Much Is Enough?

According to experts antibodies depend on how healthy the immune system is. The same level of infection can lead to different levels of antibodies being produced in different people. The same will depend upon on a person’s age, comorbidities. The healthier a person, the better the chances of producing antibodies.

Explaining how much of antibodies can be considered enough, Dr PS Narang said,

As far as patients are concerned, getting antibodies check is not necessary, we should be able to develop good antibodies against the virus after the two doses of vaccine – whether it is Covaxin or Covishield. But after taking the vaccination, it is not the time to relax, it is time to keep the mask on, maintain social distance and follow all COVID appropriate behaviour. Lot of people think, if the total of antibodies in their body is high it is nice, but it is important to know out of that total, how many are the ones that actually protect you from the virus. We need those antibodies that will end up protecting us from the virus. We need more of neutralising antibodies as they are effective in preventing the virus.

Also Read: Dos And Don’ts Of Using Steroids In COVID-19 Treatment

Why Do Reinfections Happen Despite Antibodies?

Experts explain that if the virus load that someone has contracted is really high, then even the presence of a good amount of antibodies cannot provide protection against the infection –  be it natural antibodies or vaccine acquired antibodies. This was the case seen in doctors who  recently lost their lives due to COVID despite getting vaccinated.

It is also said that the load is directly proportional to the exposure, meaning, the more time one spends in the presence of the virus, the higher the virus load is be going to be.

The chances are that reinfections will not be severe but one cannot let the guard down. So, wear a N95 mask or double mask and maintain social distance.

Talking about the tests available for the individuals to know the antibodies in their body,
Dr Pradeep Suri added,

The gold standard still remains the neutralising antibodies in the body. One can go for spike antibody test. But we haven’t come up with the good number or ball-mark figure that we put to these tests because of two factors – a. we don’t have enough published data, b. the same spike antibodies across different platforms are not harmonised or standardised.

So should one go for the antibody tests or not, highlighting that answer, Kartik Cherabuddi, Associate Professor for Infectious Disease and Global Medicine, University of Florida said,

Checking these antibodies doesn’t help – depending on when you check you might get different results. Plus, these tests are not standardise. Either you get all sense of security, or you get nothing, and this is not the case with these. Overall, we know, vaccines do a better job in protecting you. So, even though you have got infected, you should get vaccinated when your turn comes.

Also Read: COVID-19 Explainer: All You Need To Know About Oxygen Concentrators

NDTV – Dettol Banega Swasth India campaign is an extension of the five-year-old Banega Swachh India initiative helmed by Campaign Ambassador Amitabh Bachchan. It aims to spread awareness about critical health issues facing the country. In wake of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the need for WASH (WaterSanitation and Hygiene) is reaffirmed as handwashing is one of the ways to prevent Coronavirus infection and other diseases. The campaign highlights the importance of nutrition and healthcare for women and children to prevent maternal and child mortality, fight malnutrition, stunting, wasting, anaemia and disease prevention through vaccines. Importance of programmes like Public Distribution System (PDS), Mid-day Meal Scheme, POSHAN Abhiyan and the role of Aganwadis and ASHA workers are also covered. Only a Swachh or clean India where toilets are used and open defecation free (ODF) status achieved as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014, can eradicate diseases like diahorrea and become a Swasth or healthy India. The campaign will continue to cover issues like air pollutionwaste managementplastic banmanual scavenging and sanitation workers and menstrual hygiene

World

16,78,42,904Cases

5,95,34,540Active

10,48,22,717Recovered

34,85,647Deaths

Coronavirus has spread to 192 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 16,78,42,904 and 34,85,647 have died; 5,95,34,540 are active cases and 10,48,22,717 have recovered as on May 26, 2021 at 4:12 am.

India

2,71,57,795 2,08,921Cases

24,95,59191,191Active

2,43,50,816 2,95,955Recovered

3,11,388 4,157Deaths

In India, there are 2,71,57,795 confirmed cases including 3,11,388 deaths. The number of active cases is 24,95,591 and 2,43,50,816 have recovered as on May 26, 2021 at 2:30 am.

State Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths
Maharashtra

56,26,155 24,136

3,17,038 13,177

52,18,768 36,176

90,349 1,137

Karnataka

24,72,973 22,758

4,24,402 16,054

20,22,172 38,224

26,399 588

Kerala

23,95,590 29,803

2,55,788 3,771

21,32,071 33,397

7,731 177

Tamil Nadu

19,11,496 34,285

3,06,652 5,072

15,83,504 28,745

21,340 468

Uttar Pradesh

16,77,508 3,723

69,828 6,875

15,88,161 10,441

19,519 157

Andhra Pradesh

16,09,105 15,284

1,98,023 5,739

14,00,754 20,917

10,328 106

Delhi

14,19,986 1,568

21,739 2,839

13,74,682 4,251

23,565 156

West Bengal

13,01,978 17,005

1,26,376 2,209

11,60,928 19,057

14,674 157

Chhattisgarh

9,56,715 3,506

56,474 4,464

8,87,518 7,893

12,723 77

Rajasthan

9,23,860 3,404

87,391 12,484

8,28,558 15,783

7,911 105

Gujarat

7,94,912 3,255

62,506 6,465

7,22,741 9,676

9,665 44

Madhya Pradesh

7,69,696 2,422

48,634 5,019

7,13,376 7,373

7,686 68

Haryana

7,44,602 2,817

34,088 4,031

7,02,779 6,720

7,735 128

Odisha

7,14,380 10,939

98,838 863

6,12,993 11,769

2,549 33

Bihar

6,95,726 3,306

35,130 2,813

6,55,850 6,015

4,746 104

Telangana

5,60,141 3,821

38,706 500

5,18,266 4,298

3,169 23

Punjab

5,48,231 4,756

53,127 1,869

4,81,462 6,451

13,642 174

Assam

3,81,171 5,767

54,888 892

3,23,368 4,783

2,915 92

Jharkhand

3,33,058 1,247

15,641 1,928

3,12,526 3,155

4,891 20

Uttarakhand

3,18,346 2,756

45,568 4,011

2,66,758 6,674

6,020 93

Jammu And Kashmir

2,75,822 2,964

44,918 712

2,27,242 3,623

3,662 53

Himachal Pradesh

1,82,982 1,999

23,053 1,128

1,57,042 3,067

2,887 60

Goa

1,49,410 1,549

15,706 572

1,31,244 2,082

2,460 39

Puducherry

98,219 1,237

15,475 360

81,336 1,571

1,408 26

Chandigarh

58,992 258

4,063 365

54,215 618

714 5

Tripura

47,965 667

8,001 301

39,491 965

473 3

Manipur

45,451 824

6,785 341

37,946 468

720 15

Meghalaya

31,449 957

7,971 183

22,976 755

502 19

Arunachal Pradesh

25,002 429

3,323 196

21,575 231

104 2

Nagaland

20,535 276

4,806 92

15,414 166

315 18

Ladakh

17,810 278

1,561 98

16,070 179

179 1

Sikkim

13,511 278

3,370 186

9,904 87

237 5

Mizoram

10,937 315

2,743 174

8,160 141

34

Dadra And Nagar Haveli

10,092 43

431 8

9,657 51

4

Lakshadweep

7,111 264

2,320 158

4,765 104

26 2

Andaman And Nicobar Islands

6,878 25

228 26

6,544 49

106 2





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